In our previous post on Artificial Intelligence you guys would have came across about the concept of AI. If no then click the link here to read our basic article on AI to clear your doubts and better understanding of concept.
While talking about the history of artificial intelligence or AI, the First name comes is of John McCarthy. John McCarthy is known as the father of AI technology.
McCarthy played an essential role in the development of artificial machines, and he defined the field of artificial intelligence AI in a significant way.
History Of Artificial Intelligence
History Of Artificial Intelligence has been described below by years and activities
In the 1960s the computer scientists and various machine learning were done during the time.
The first robot that could perform duties like humans was developed in Japan in the year 1972.
1943:- First mathematic model for building a neural network
Warren McCullough and Walter Pitts published “A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity.” This publication proposed the first mathematical model for building a neural network.
1949:- Donald Hebb proposes the theory that neural pathways are created from experiences
In his book The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory, Donald Hebb proposes the hypothesis that neural pathways are made from encounters and that associations between neurons become more grounded the more oftentimes they’re utilized. Hebbian learning keeps on being a significant model in AI.
1950:- SNARC, the first neural network computer
- Harvard undergraduates Marvin Minsky and Dean Edmonds build SNARC, the first neural network computer.
- Alan Turing publishes “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, proposing what is now known as the Turing Test, a method for determining if a machine is intelligent.
- Claude Shannon publishes the paper “Programming a Computer for Playing Chess.”
- Isaac Asimov publishes the “Three Laws of Robotics.”
1952:- Arthur Samuel develops a self-learning program to play checkers
1954:- IBM Machine Translation
The Georgetown-IBM machine translation experiment automatically translates 60 carefully selected Russian sentences into English.
1956:- Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence
- The phrase “Artificial Intelligence” is authored at the “Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence.” Led by John McCarthy, the gathering, which characterized the degree and objectives of AI, is broadly viewed as the introduction of Artificial Intelligence as we are probably aware of it today.
- Allen Newell and Herbert Simon demonstrate Logic Theorist (LT), the first reasoning program.
1958:- Development Of AI Programing Language
John McCarthy builds up the AI programming language Lisp and distributes the paper “Projects with Common Sense.” The paper proposed the speculative Advice Taker, a total AI framework with the capacity to gain as a matter of fact as successfully as people do.
1959:- MIT Artificial Intelligence Project
- John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky found the MIT Artificial Intelligence Project.
- Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and J.C. Shaw develop the General Problem Solver (GPS), a program designed to imitate human problem-solving.
- Herbert Gelernter develops the Geometry Theorem Prover program.
1963:- AI Lab
John McCarthy starts the AI Lab at Stanford
1966:- The Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee (ALPAC) Report
The Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee (ALPAC) report by the U.S. government subtleties the absence of progress in machine translation research, a significant Cold War activity with the guarantee of programmed and immediate interpretation of Russian. The ALPAC report prompts the crossing out of all administration supported MT ventures.
1969:- Development of the first expert system
The first successful expert systems are developed in DENDRAL, a XX program, and MYCIN, designed to diagnose blood infections, are created at Stanford.
The logic programming language PROLOG is created.
1973:- Severe cuts in funding for artificial intelligence projects
The “Lighthill Report,” detailing the disappointments in AI research, is released by the British government and leads to severe cuts in funding for artificial intelligence projects.
1974-1980:- First AI Winter
Frustration with the progress of AI development leads to major DARPA cutbacks in academic grants. Combined with the earlier ALPAC report and the previous year’s “Lighthill Report,” artificial intelligence funding dries up and research stalls. This period is known as the “First AI Winter.”
1980:- Development of R1 (also known as Xcon)
Digital Equipment Corporations create R1 (otherwise called XCON), the principal fruitful business master framework. Intended to design orders for new PC frameworks, R1 commences a speculation blast in master frameworks that will keep going for a significant part of the decade, adequately finishing the main “artificial intelligence Winter.”
1982:- Launch of Fifth Generation Computer Systems project
Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry launches the ambitious Fifth Generation Computer Systems project. The goal of FGCS is to develop supercomputer-like performance and a platform for AI development.
1983:- Launch of Strategic Computing Initiative
In response to Japan’s FGCS, the U.S. government launches the Strategic Computing Initiative to provide DARPA funded research in advanced computing and artificial intelligence.
1985:- Development of computers to run on the AI Programming Language
Companies are spending more than a billion dollars a year on expert systems and an entire industry known as the Lisp machine market springs up to support them.
Companies like Symbolics and Lisp Machines Inc. build specialized computers to run on the AI programming language Lisp.
1987-1993:- Lisp machine market collapsed
- As computing technology improved, less expensive options rose and the Lisp machine showcase crumbled in 1987, introducing the “Second AI Winter.” During this period, master frameworks demonstrated too costly to even think about maintaining and update, in the long run dropping out of favor.
- Japan terminates the FGCS project in 1992, citing failure in meeting the ambitious goals outlined a decade earlier.
- DARPA ends the Strategic Computing Initiative in 1993 after spending nearly $1 billion and falling far short of expectations.
- U.S. forces deploy DART, an automated logistics planning and scheduling tool, during the Gulf War.
1997:- Defeat of World Chess Champion From AI
IBM’s Deep Blue beats world chess champion, Gary Kasparov.
2005:- AI-based car won DARPA Grand Challenge
- STANLEY, a self-driving car, wins the DARPA Grand Challenge.
- The U.S. military begins investing in autonomous robots like Boston Dynamic’s “Big Dog” and iRobot’s “PackBot.
2008:- An iPhone App Introduced
Google makes breakthroughs in speech recognition and introduces the feature in its iPhone app.
2011:- IBM’s Watson trounces the competition on Jeopardy!
2012:- Google Brain Deep Learning project
Andrew Ng, the founder of the Google Brain Deep Learning project, feeds a neural network using deep learning algorithms 10 million YouTube videos as a training set.
The neural network learned to recognize a cat without being told what a cat is, ushering in a breakthrough era for neural networks and deep learning funding.
2014:- Google makes the first self-driving car to pass a state driving test
2016:- Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo defeated Lee Sedol
Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo defeats world champion Go player Lee Sedol. The complexity of the ancient Chinese game was seen as a major hurdle to clear in AI